The centuries of years old constructions around the globe symbolize the architectural brilliance of our ancestors. The tools and different materials utilized for the development of such wonders of Ancient world totally beyond our imaginations . It is difficult to believe that the miracles like great Wallof China,Colosseum of Rome, Great Pyramid of Giza and Taj Mahal were built at once with no technology. Followings are 10 design marvels of Ancient world.
10. Pont Du Gard, Remoulins, Southern France
Pont Du Gard is a 50 kilometer long Ancient Roman reservoir conduit Bridge(waterhouses utilized by Romans) crosswise over Gardon river in Remoulins commune of Southern France. The bridge is a true magnum opus of ancient Roman design. It was built in the half of first century A.D to transport water from Uzes commune to Roman region of Nimes. It is one of the preserved landmarks of Ancient Roman engineering and a world heritage site in France.
Pont Du Gard is a three story aqueduct bridge connect standing 50 meter high and longest level estimating 275 meters in length.The number of arches and span changes from bring down level to upper level. The bridge was constructed out of 50400 tons of limestone without utilizing mortar. The bricks were exactly cut by the builders with the goal that they fit firmly together.
Historians additionally discovered numbering of the blocks of bridge, utilized by builders for platform. The walls of bridge likewise recorded with messages and directions by the builders. Today the bridge is a pride of France and internationally well known for it’s historical significance.
9. Leshan Giant Buddha, Sichuan Province, China
Leshan monster Buddha is the largest carved stone Buddha statue on the planet. It is cut on precipice face of mountain in Sichuan area of China, site at which Minjiang, Dadu and Qingyi rivers meet. It is the most imperative attraction of Leshan city and faces holy mount Emei. The 71 meter Buddha statue’s shoulder is 24 meter wide and has 27 feet fingers.
The construction of the great Buddha statue began in 713 by Tang dynasty and took long 90 years for it’s culmination. It was appointed by a Chinese priest named Haitong. The priest trusted that lord Buddha would shield the site from turbulent water of confluence of three rivers.
The head of the Buddha statue is finished with 1021 buns. It is a standout amongst the most featuring architectural highlight of the statue. The hidden drainage system of the Leshan Buddha statue additionally speak to the architectural brilliance of builders of that time. The hidden channels of drainage system go through head, cloths, arms and behind of ears of the statue. It plays a vital role in keeping the Buddha statue from easy degradation.
8. Saksaywaman, Cusco, Northern Peru
Saksaywaman is a walled Inca fortress situated in Cusco city in Northern Peru. The complex is a standout amongst the most imperative archeological site in the country. The large monumental complex is situated at a attitude of 3701 meter and covers a large number of hectares of land. It is three level complex made of large stones. The size and shape of stones utilized for the construction also varies at various sections of the site and biggest stones weighs in excess of 200 tons.
The large complex was built by Inca realm (somewhere in the range of 1438 and 1533). The Inca architects rough cut the large stones and fit together perfectly without utilizing the mortar.The large rocks were imported in fro mile away places using just man power. The strategy utilized by Incas for match the stones are as yet a mystery. They likewise used stones of variety of shapes for the construction of the complex. It helped numerous parts of Saksaywaman to stay flawless.
7. Borobudur, Central Java, Indonesia
Borobudur is the biggest Buddhist temple and a world Heritage site situated in Central Java in Indonesia. The amazing archeological wonder was manufactured 400 years before the construction of great Angkor Wat (biggest religious landmark on the Earth) in Cambodia. Borobudur is a three-tier temple that covers a region of 1900 square meters. The monument has a pyramidal base, a cone structure at the center and a stupa at the top level. The temple additionally houses 504 Buddha statues and 72 open work stupas. In 1991 UNESCO perceived Borobudur asa world heritage site.
As per the inscriptions Borobudur temple was built somewhere in Between of 8the and 9th centuries. But, up to this point there is no information about the builders of the colossal architectural wonder. The temple stay avoided the external world for a centuries and rediscovered in 1814.
Archeologists estimated that 55000 cubic meters of andesite rocks for the construction of the temple. Knobs and woodworking joinery were utilized by the builders for joint together the massive stones. The three levels of the temple speak to three main areas of Buddhist cosmology called kamadhatu, rupadhatu and arupadhatu.
The Buddha statues found on various sections of temple additionally express six different types of mudras. There is additionally a giant puzzle made of two million volcanic stones. Another important architectural attraction of Borobudur temple is it’s water drains. Truth be told the temple has 100 water drains altogether, made in the shape of elephant headed fish known as ‘makara’.
6. Petra, Southern Jordan
Petra in Southern Jordan is a standout amongst the most acclaimed archeological site on the planet. The stone cut city was the capital city of Ancient Nabataeans (between C.E 37-c.100). Petra is otherwise called ‘Rose city’ in view of red-rose sandstone of mountain out of which the city was carved. The world ‘Petra’ means rock in Greek language. Petra is likewise an interesting case of rock cut engineering and it attract tourists from everywhere throughout the world.
Nabataeans manufactured houses, temples, tombs and sacred places on sandstone cliffs of Petras 2000 years prior. The city served as a caravan for ancient traders who travelled between Mediterranean and Africa. Petra remained hidden from external world until 1812 and rediscovered by Swiss pilgrim Johann Ludwig Burckhardt.
There are 800 monument in Petra and a large portion of them represent the fusion of Nabataeans rock cut and Hellenistic architectural styles. The ‘king’ wall’ is one of central section at Petra city. It contain three three imperial tombs on the mountain face. Every one of the tombs are exceptionally decorated and have engravings.
Khazneh el Faroun is another best construction on the stone of the mountain. It is otherwise called ‘Treasury of Pharaoh’ which is decorated with great architectural components, for example, sculptures and columns. There are additionally imperative relics from the Roman rule in the city.
5. Colosseum of Rome, Italy
Colosseum is the most impressive monument of Roman empire and best example of Roman design. It is additionally the Largest amphitheatre on the planet. It was commissioned by ruler Vespasian in A.D 70 and finished in A.D 80 by his son Titus. The building has a elliptical structure and remaining at 159 feet. When it was used for arranging battle amongst combatants and wild animals. The colosseum remained in active for four centuries and relinquished in 5thcentury. The monument was also intensely harmed by earthquakes of 847 AD and 1231 AD.
Colosseum is initially built as a four story building with 80 doors and had ability to hold 50000-80000 spectators. It was decorated with marbles and contain many life size statues. Each floor of the amphitheater was devoted for People of various classes, top floor for lower classes and most lowest floor for important citizens.There are likewise an underground cage section for keeping the wild creatures for the gladiatorial battles.
A large portion of interior section of colosseum was made of wood. The builders were utilized tired arrangements for seating in the colosseum. They additionally built box type seats for Roman realms and different individuals from royal family. Today the surviving parts of colosseum contain wall at the Northern side of the monument. The underground paths that once utilized for transporting wild animals additionally opened for public.
4. Stonehenge, Salisbury, England
Stonehenge is a massive ancient stone monument situated in Salisbury city of England. It is a circle of standing stones of various size. Archeologists evaluated that the monument was Built before 4000-5000 years prior. Stonehenge also represent architectural brilliance of ancestor lived in the area around then. There is no written record about people behind the construction of stonehenge and correct reason for it.
Ancestors mainly utilized two sorts of stones for the construction of stonehenge known as bluestones and sarsen stones. The bluestones measures in excess of 25 tons and sarsen stones weighs up to 4 tons. All the massive stones for the construction of monument imported from faraway places. In any case, the technique utilized by stonehenge builders for importing in and putting the tremendous stones still unclear. It took over 1500 years for the construction of monument like stonehenge at that time.
Stonehenge is additionally lined up with midwinter Sunset and midsummer Sunset. There are numerous hypothesis on the purpose for the development of Stonehenge, ranges from internment site to religious site to galactic observatory.
3. Taj Mahal, Uttar Pradesh, India
Taj Mahal is the most imperative historical landmark and extraordinary example of Mughal architecture in India. Taj Mahal means ‘Crown of palaces’ in Arabic dialect and it is additionally considered as most notable image of love & affection. The marvelous marble mausoleum was commissioned by Mughal head Shah Jahan. The landmark speak to the combination of Mughal,Ottoman Turkish, Persian, Islamic and Indian architectural styles. In 1983 UNESCO recognized Taj Mahal as a world heritage site under the criteria of masterpiece of human designs.
The construction of Taj Mahal was begun in 1632. It was designed by a group of three skilled architectures named Ustad Ahmad Lahauri, Makramat Khan and Abd ul-Karim Ma’mur Khan. Thousands of skilled workers, craftsmen and painters employed for the construction. The domed mausoleum alongside it’s gigantic garden was finished in 1953.
Sandstones, white marbles, jasper and jades were chiefly utilized for the construction of monument. The white marble for Taj Mahal was imported from Makrana of Rajasthan. There are likewise 28 different sorts of valuable and semi-precious stones were utilized for the adornment of the mausoleum. Numerous parts of the Taj Mahal were additionally engraved with important verses from holy Quran. The sketches on the monument likewise speak to various geometrical patterns.
The 35 meter tall dome is the most attractive feature of Taj Mahal, built using traditional Persian and Hindustani architectural styles. There are likewise four great minarets at every corner topped by little domes and similarly partitioned by balconies. The large garden of Taj Mahal symbolize the concept of ‘paradise garden’ depict in spiritualist Islamic writings. The garden is loaded up with numerous beautiful blossoming plants, trees and birds. It is additionally isolated in to four primary parts by marble canals.
2. Great Pyramid Of Giza, EI Giza, Egypt
Great pyramid of Giza is one of seven miracles of ancient world and furthermore the biggest pyramid on the planet. It was worked as a last resting place for Egyptian pharaoh Khufu. It is additionally considered as one of most prominent accomplishment of ancient Egypt. Still there are just a couple of records about strategies utilized by predecessors for quarrying, molding, transporting and putting enormous stone blocks for the constructions of Great pyramid of Giza.
The pyramid of Khufu was built between 2560 B.C and 2540 B.C. At starting height of 146.5 meters it stayed as tallest building on the planet for next 3800 years. Great pyramid of Giza is the main Egyptian pyramid to have both ascending and descending passageways. Archeologists trusted that ancient Egyptian architects were utilized the information about arrangement of stars for arranging and planning of Great pyramid of Giza.
It is estimated that around 2.3 million stone blocks were utilized for it’s constructions. The stone blocks were transported from nearby -by quarries through Nile river. It is accepted to be the builders used to cut the huge stone blocks by pounding with wooden wedges. They additionally utilized 500000 tons of mortar for the construction of pyramid. It is impossible to duplicate such strong mortar today.
The original entrance to the pyramid remains at meters high and the path from the entryway prompts bring lower level of the monument. Pyramid of Khufu has three entombment chambers situated at three Different level of the pyramid. The pharaoh’s chamber is situated at the Centre point of the pyramid and it tends to be gotten to by path called grand gallery. The chamber of Queen and rock cut chamber can be found at Lower level of the pyramid. The great monument additionally contain wooden statues, stone carvings and extravagance things.
1 Great Wall of China
The longest man made structure ever built based on the face of the world. It is a non-continuous structure initially worked by sovereign Qin Shi Huang to protect attack from Ancient Yayun clan. It was finished by various dynasties in various timeframe. Considering the architectural significanceand historical significance UNESCO perceived the great wall of China as a world Heritage site in 1987.
The great wall of China was initially built somewhere in the range of 220 and 206 B.C. built , stones, tamped Earth and woods were the principle materials utilized for the construction of the wall . Just a couple of section of original wall remains today. Later Liano, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties included protective wall between 10th– 14th centuries. Thousands of watch towers were additionally added to great wall at that time.
Today great wall stretches more than 50000 kilometers long. The height of wall ranges from 16 to 33 feet and has a normal width of 15 feet. great wall lost military operations at present stage and attracts millions of tourists from around the world.