29th September 2023
Meet Caesarion-son of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar, the last pharaoh of egypt.
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Meet Caesarion-son of Cleopatra and Julius Caesar, the last pharaoh of egypt.

The last Ptolemy Philometor Caesar pharaoh of Egypt’s Ptolemaic dynasty was Ptolemy XV, better known as Caesarion. He was the son of Cleopatra VII, with whom he co-governed between 44 BC and 30 BC, and the son of Julius Caesar, who never officially recognized him.

Raised in 47 BC, Queen Cleopatra spent years arguing that, because Octavian, his nephew, had been adopted as heir, Caesarion was indeed the son of the Roman king, the only biological one.

Eventually Julius Caesar would have allowed his young man to use his name even though supporters of Caesar tried to prove through pamphlets distributed in Rome that paternity was not real.

Caesarion living in Rome with his parents as official guests of Julius Caesar during his first two years of life. But after the death of the general in 44 BC, they were forced to return to Egypt, and at the age of three Cleopatra proclaimed their son to be their co-regent.

He came to be appointed as king of kings, in 34 BC, by Cleopatra and Mark Antony, after benefiting from Donations of Alexandria, which was the transfer of Roman lands to the couple’s children. The title, however, could be seen as a threat to Rome’s greatness.

In 31 BC, after the Battle of Actium and Octavian’s invasion of Egypt, Caesarion was sent by his mother to the port of Berenice, on the Red Sea, with a treasure. However, what happened next was never fully clarified.

According to the most accepted theory, supported by the historian Plutarch, it is that after the possible suicides of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, Caesarion would have been persuaded by his tutor Teodoro with the false argument that Octavian had invited him so that he could retake the throne.

Upon returning to Alexandria, the last pharaoh was arrested and executed, following orders from Octavian.

Image of Cleopatra and Caesarion at the Temple of Hathor, Egypt.
Image of Cleopatra and Caesarion at the Temple of Hathor, Egypt.

History of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra

Julius Caesar
Bust of Julius Caesar

One of the most fascinating stories that they have given to write novels and have even been taken to the movies, is set in a real story.

In this article of Historicaleve, we will focus on making a summary of the History of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra, who starred in one of the most important moments in the respective end stages of their different countries, as Cleopatra was the queen of Hellenistic Egypt, which would fall in the hands of Octavius in the year 30 BC While Julius Caesar was the figure that would end the Roman Republic and although this was killed by senators on March 15 of 44 BC left everything done for Octavius to end up being the emperor.

A coin with the head of Cleopatra, Egypt. Ancient Egyptian. Graeco Roman period c 51 30 BC.
A coin with the head of Cleopatra, Egypt. Ancient Egyptian. Graeco Roman period c 51 30 BC.

Julius Caesar and Cleopatra: How they met

We do not know exactly how the first contact between the two dignitaries took place.

According to the history of Rome (and some of the remaining writings of Julius Caesar) it seems that Cleopatra would meet him around the year 48 BC at which time the Roman general had ordered Cleopatra and her brother Ptolemy to be reunited to put an end to the hostilities.

She, not trusting the aspirations of her brother’s agents, rolled herself up in a rug that was delivered as a gift in Caesar’s palace. When opening it in his privacy, according to the story, the Roman general found Cleopatra practically naked, and ended up spending all night with her.

In theory it seems that Cleopatra was looking for allying with Rome to return to sit on the throne of Egypt that her brother had snatched.

Little else we know what was spoken in that room, but for the facts that we will continue narrating now in this summary about the history of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra, had to be also political issues, because from that moment they would become two inseparable.

Amazing things about Queen Cleopatra

Bust of  Queen Cleopatra
Bust of Queen Cleopatra

Queen Cleopatra was the last member of the Ptolemaic dynasty that ruled Egypt between 323 BCE and 30 BCE.

In Western culture, she is primarily remembered as the lover of Julius Caesar and Mark Anthony, two of the most famous Roman generals of the time.

To Arabs and Africans, however, it is her intellect as well as her diplomatic and linguistic skills that she is most remembered for. It is worth noting that Cleopatra was not the only ancient Egyptian queen. However, she is by far its most famous.

Two thousand years since her death, her life still fascinates many people the world over.