2nd April 2023
The little-told story of the massive WWII pet cull
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World War II Britain’s 1939 Pet Holocaust: Within a week, 750,000 pets were ‘destroyed’

Everything else is subject to war, including animals, when people are at war. Over 750,000 cats and dogs in the United Kingdom on the eve of World War II, a week away. They’ve been placed down.

At a moment of uncertainties about what the future will bring, the tragedy of killing so many animal families came after a call for action. The Pet Holocaust event was since characterized.

Women of the American Ambulance Great Britain bandage to paw of a dog, injured during a devastating V1 attack.
Women of the American Ambulance Great Britain bandage to the paw of a dog, injured during a devastating V1 attack.

By mid-1939 it was clear that war in Europe was inevitable, and that Britain would be involved in it. The British government issued many different pieces of advice on what should be done in preparation for the war.

Measures taken included securing bomb shelters and ordering people to stockpile food for bad days. Sirens were installed on every corner of the island.

And around this same period, the National Air Raid Precautions Animals Committee was also initiated, and a notice they drafted read: “If at all possible send or take your household animals into the country in advance of an emergency.”

Air Raid Precautions Dog at work in Poplar, London, England, 1941.
Air Raid Precautions Dog at work in Poplar, London, England, 1941.

The notice, which was circulated newspapers countrywide, further said: “If you cannot place them in the care of neighbors, it really is kindest to have them destroyed.”

While vets and animal charities opposed this gloomy piece of advice, panicked people, spurred by fears of the imminent war, consumed the idea. It was one of the things they were instructed to do by the Home Office.

Advice to Animal Owners.
Advice to Animal Owners.

When the war officially began in September 1939, hospitals and dispensaries belonging to the People’s Dispensary for Sick Animals (PDSA) was overwhelmed by the number of pet owners who opted to have their cat or dog euthanized. Some owners even took care of ending the lives of their beloved pets by themselves.

People felt compelled to take action that in any other circumstance would be unthinkable due to various reasons.

The expected shortage of food was one of the key issues. For an island nation that imported 75 percent of its people’s food by the sea, the threat of these supply routes being blockaded was very real. Some people reasoned they would be unable to provide for their pets during wartime, or that it would be inappropriate to keep a pet at such a time, as food to keep people alive should be prioritized.

When major Nazi bombing began in the autumn of 1940, once again there was a rush to abandon pets by the thousand
When major Nazi bombing began in the autumn of 1940, once again there was a rush to abandon pets by the thousand.

Rationing began in Britain on January 8, 1940, and continued until midnight on July 4, 1954 — nine years after the war ended. Initially, restrictions were placed on bacon, butter and sugar, and schemes to ration a wide range of other foodstuffs and items such as clothing were soon rolled out.

Other owners felt unable to care for their pets as people were drafted, and women found themselves working full time to replace the previously male-dominated labor force.

The first bombing raid on the country in July 1940 triggered the second wave of pet euthanization. It’s a terrible fact that the number of dead animals quickly surged to hundreds of thousands.

Blackie the cat and Churchill, 1941.
Blackie the cat and Churchill, 1941.

Some owners said last goodbyes to their beloved pets via newspapers and magazines, filling the In Memoriam sections. Seen from today’s perspective, many people view this part of the war preparations as entirely useless, and unnecessarily heart-wrenching.

And were there saviors? Pip Dodd, a senior curator at the National Army Museum, told the BBC “The Royal Army Veterinary Corps and the RSPCA tried to stop this, particularly as dogs were needed for the war effort.”

Animal shelters such as started accepting as many cats and dogs as possible. The Battersea Dogs Home, manned by just four people, cared for 145,000 dogs during WWII, according to the BBC. Individuals who strongly opposed the measure to destroy animals also showed up and took their own actions to do something and aid the situation.

Nina Mary Benita Douglas-Hamilton, Duchess of Hamilton, initiated the establishment of a sanctuary using her own funds. The Duchess sent her own staff to save abandoned animals from around London.

Animals in War memorial.
Animals in War memorial.

Today, little do we remember about the Pet Holocaust. This episode from the early days of the war is saved from oblivion in books, and thanks to authors such as Hilda Kean, Clare Campbell, and Christy Campbell among others.

And perhaps this is to no surprise. After six horrible years for the world, after realizing the extent of the Nazi Holocaust, or the atomic bombs detonated at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, who would have wanted to remember yet another horror?